Konrad Lorenzborn Nov. His ideas contributed to an understanding of how behavioral patterns may be traced to an evolutionary past, and he was also known for his work on the roots of aggression.
Lorenz was the son of an orthopedic surgeon. He showed an interest in animals at an early age, and he kept animals of various species—fish, birds, monkeys, dogs, cats, and rabbits—many of which he brought home from his boyhood excursions.Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient
He also kept detailed records of bird behaviour in the form of diaries. He then returned to Vienna to study. He received an M. Encouraged by the positive response to his scientific work, Lorenz established colonies of birds, such as the jackdaw and greylag goosepublished a series of research papers on his observations of them, and soon gained an international reputation.
In Lorenz described learning behaviour in young ducklings and goslings. He observed that at a certain critical stage soon after hatching, they learn to follow real or foster parents.
The process, which is called imprintinginvolves visual and auditory stimuli from the parent object; these elicit a following response in the young that affects their subsequent adult behaviour. In the German Society for Animal Psychology was founded. Also inhe was appointed lecturer in comparative anatomy and animal psychology at the University of Vienna. From to he served as a physician in the German army and was captured as a prisoner of war in the Soviet Union.
He was returned to Austria in and headed the Institute of Comparative Ethology at Altenberg from to In he established a comparative ethology department in the Max Planck Institute of Buldern, Westphalia, becoming codirector of the Institute in In Lorenz, together with Frisch and Tinbergen, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning animal behavioral patterns.
In the same year, Lorenz became director of the department of animal sociology at the Institute for Comparative Ethology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Altenberg.
He also investigated how behaviour may result from two or more basic drives that are activated simultaneously in an animal. Working with Nikolaas Tinbergen of the Netherlands, Lorenz showed that different forms of behaviour are harmonized in a single action sequence. He proposed that animal species are genetically constructed so as to learn specific kinds of information that are important for the survival of the species. His ideas have also cast light on how behavioral patterns develop and mature during the life of an individual organism.
In the latter part of his career, Lorenz applied his ideas to the behaviour of humans as members of a social species, an application with controversial philosophical and sociological implications.
Fighting in lower animals has a positive survival function, he observed, such as the dispersion of competitors and the maintenance of territory.
Warlike tendencies in humans may likewise be ritualized into socially useful behaviour patterns. Konrad Lorenz. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Konrad Lorenz Austrian zoologist.
Written By: Eckhard H. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today.By Saul McLeodpublished Lorenz investigated the mechanisms of imprinting, where some species of animals form an attachment to the first large moving object that they meet.
This process suggests that attachment is innate and programmed genetically. He took a large clutch of goose eggs and kept them until they were about to hatch out.
Half of the eggs were then placed under a goose mother, while Lorenz kept the other half hatched in an incubator, with Lorenz making sure he was the first moving object the newly hatched goslings encountered.
The naturally hatched baby goslings followed their mother, while the incubator hatched ones follow Lorenz. To ensure imprinting had occurred Lorenz put all the goslings together under an upturned box and allowed them to mix. When the box was removed the two groups separated to go to their respective 'mothers' - half to the goose, and half to Lorenz. Imprinting does not appear to be active immediately after hatching, although there seems to be a critical period during which imprinting can occur.
Hess showed that although the imprinting process could occur as early as one hour after hatching, the strongest responses occurred between 12 and 17 hours after hatching, and that after 32 hours the response was unlikely to occur at all.
Imprinting has consequences, both for short-term survival, and in the longer term forming internal templates for later relationships.
Imprinting occurs without any feeding taking place. Lorenz and Hess believe that once imprinting has occurred, it cannot be reversed, nor can a gosling imprint on anything else. Lorenz, K. Der Kumpan in der Umwelt des Vogels. McLeod, S. Konrad lorenz's imprinting theory. Simply Psychology. Toggle navigation. Download this article as a PDF.
Edward Norton Lorenz
How to reference this article: How to reference this article: McLeod, S. Back to top.Lorenz is an originally German name derived from the Roman surname, Laurentiuswhich means "from Laurentum ". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Look up Lorenz in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Lorenz may refer to: Contents. Disambiguation page providing links to topics that could be referred to by the same search term. Categories : Disambiguation pages Disambiguation pages with given-name-holder lists Disambiguation pages with surname-holder lists German-language surnames.
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If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.The Lorenz system is deterministic, which means that if you know the exact starting values of your variables then in theory you can determine their future values as they change with time. Lorenz demonstrated that if you begin this model by choosing some values for x, y, and z, and then do it again with just slightly different values, then you will quickly arrive at fundamentally different results.
In real life you can never know the exact value of any physical measurement, although you can get close imagine measuring the temperature at O'Hare Airport at AM.
See the problem? With these results, Lorenz shocked the mathematical and scientific community by showing that a seemingly nice system of equations could defy conventional methods of prediction. This is called chaosand its implications are far-reaching, especially in the field of weather prediction.
This is what the standard Lorenz butterfly looks like: Notice the two "wings" of the butterfly; these correspond to two different sets of physical behavior of the system. A point on this graph represents a particular physical state, and the blue curve is the path followed by such a point during a finite period of time.
Notice how the curve spirals around on one wing a few times before switching to the other wing. The code has been updated, but the plots haven't yet been updated. As a way to quantify the different behaviors, I chose to focus on the frequency with which the model switched states, from one "wing" to the other.
By running a series of simulations with different parameters, I arrived at the following set of results: This colors on this graph represent the frequency of state-switching for each set of parameters r,b. The five points marked on the above graph correspond to the five different Lorenz systems whose graphs are plotted above.
All together now:. The state variables are x, y, and z. The rate at which x is changing is denoted by x'.The Lorenz system is a system of ordinary differential equations first studied by Edward Lorenz.
It is notable for having chaotic solutions for certain parameter values and initial conditions. In particular, the Lorenz attractor is a set of chaotic solutions of the Lorenz system.
In popular media the ' butterfly effect ' stems from the real-world implications of the Lorenz attractor, i. This underscores that physical systems can be completely deterministic and yet still be inherently unpredictable even in the absence of quantum effects. The shape of the Lorenz attractor itself, when plotted graphically, may also be seen to resemble a butterfly.
InEdward Lorenz developed a simplified mathematical model for atmospheric convection. The equations relate the properties of a two-dimensional fluid layer uniformly warmed from below and cooled from above. The Lorenz equations also arise in simplified models for lasers dynamos thermosyphons brushless DC motors electric circuits chemical reactions  and forward osmosis.
The Malkus waterwheel exhibits chaotic motion where instead of spinning in one direction at a constant speed, its rotation will speed up, slow down, stop, change directions, and oscillate back and forth between combinations of such behaviors in an unpredictable manner.
From a technical standpoint, the Lorenz system is nonlinearnon-periodic, three-dimensional and deterministic. The Lorenz equations have been the subject of hundreds of research articles, and at least one book-length study.
The system exhibits chaotic behavior for these and nearby values. This point corresponds to no convection. This pair of equilibrium points is stable only if. At the critical value, both equilibrium points lose stability through a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Its Hausdorff dimension is estimated to be 2.
The Lorenz attractor is difficult to analyze, but the action of the differential equation on the attractor is described by a fairly simple geometric model. This problem was the first one to be resolved, by Warwick Tucker in The Lorenz equations are derived from the Oberbeck—Boussinesq approximation to the equations describing fluid circulation in a shallow layer of fluid, heated uniformly from below and cooled uniformly from above.
The fluid is assumed to circulate in two dimensions vertical and horizontal with periodic rectangular boundary conditions. The partial differential equations modeling the system's stream function and temperature are subjected to a spectral Galerkin approximation : the hydrodynamic fields are expanded in Fourier series, which are then severely truncated to a single term for the stream function and two terms for the temperature.
This reduces the model equations to a set of three coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations. A detailed derivation may be found, for example, in nonlinear dynamics texts. Smale's 14th problem says 'Do the properties of the Lorenz attractor exhibit that of a strange attractor? Then the proof is split in three main points that are proved and imply the existence of a strange attractor.
Another problem is that as we are applying this algorithm, the flow becomes more 'horizontal' see leading to a dramatic increase in imprecision. To prevent this, the algorithm changes the orientation of the cross sections, becoming either horizontal or vertical. A solution in the Lorenz attractor rendered as a metal wire to show direction and 3D structure. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Lorenz curve or Lorentz distribution.
A solution in the Lorenz attractor plotted at high resolution in the x-z plane. Play media.He is often regarded as one of the founders of modern ethologythe study of animal behavior.
He developed an approach that began with an earlier generation, including his teacher Oskar Heinroth. Lorenz studied instinctive behavior in animals, especially in greylag geese and jackdaws. Working with geese, he investigated the principle of imprintingthe process by which some nidifugous birds i.
Although Lorenz did not discover the topic, he became widely known for his descriptions of imprinting as an instinctive bond. In he met Tinbergen, and the two collaborated in developing ethology as a separate sub-discipline of biology. A Review of General Psychology survey, published inranked Lorenz as the 65th most cited scholar of the 20th century in the technical psychology journals, introductory psychology textbooks, and survey responses.
Lorenz's work was interrupted by the onset of World War II and in he was recruited into the German Army as a medic. After the war he regretted his membership in the Nazi Party.
At the request of his father, Adolf Lorenzhe began a premedical curriculum in at Columbia Universitybut he returned to Vienna in to continue his studies at the University of Vienna.
He graduated as Doctor of Medicine MD in and became an assistant professor at the Institute of Anatomy until He finished his zoological studies in and received his second doctorate PhD.
While still a student, Lorenz began developing what would become a large menagerieranging from domestic to exotic animals. In his popular book King Solomon's RingLorenz recounts that while studying at the University of Vienna he kept a variety of animals at his parents' apartment, ranging from fish to a capuchin monkey named Gloria.
Inat an international scientific symposium on instinct, Lorenz met his great friend and colleague Nikolaas Tinbergen. Together they studied geese —wild, domesticand hybrid. One result of these studies was that Lorenz "realized that an overpowering increase in the drives of feeding as well as of copulation and a waning of more differentiated social instincts is characteristic of very many domestic animals".
Lorenz began to suspect and fear "that analogous processes of deterioration may be at work with civilized humanity. He was drafted into the Wehrmacht in The objective was to study the biological characteristics of "German-Polish half-breeds" to determine whether they 'benefitted' from the same work ethics as 'pure' Germans. He was sent to the Russian front in where he quickly became a prisoner of war in the Soviet Union from to In captivity in Soviet Armenia he continued to work as a medic and "became tolerably fluent in Russian and got quite friendly with some Russians, mostly doctors.
He arrived back in Altenberg his family home, near Vienna both "with manuscript and bird intact. In his memoirs Lorenz described the chronology of his war years differently from what historians have been able to document after his death. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for discoveries in individual and social behavior patterns" with two other important early ethologistsNikolaas Tinbergen and Karl von Frisch.
Inhe became the first recipient of the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca.In physics specifically in electromagnetism the Lorentz force or electromagnetic force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields.
A particle of charge q moving with a velocity v in an electric field E and a magnetic field B experiences a force of. Variations on this basic formula describe the magnetic force on a current-carrying wire sometimes called Laplace forcethe electromotive force in a wire loop moving through a magnetic field an aspect of Faraday's law of inductionand the force on a charged particle which might be traveling near the speed of light relativistic form of the Lorentz force.
Historians suggest that the law is implicit in a paper by James Clerk Maxwellpublished in The force F acting on a particle of electric charge q with instantaneous velocity vdue to an external electric field E and magnetic field Bis given by in SI units  : . In terms of cartesian components, we have:. In general, the electric and magnetic fields are functions of the position and time. Therefore, explicitly, the Lorentz force can be written as:. A positively charged particle will be accelerated in the same linear orientation as the E field, but will curve perpendicularly to both the instantaneous velocity vector v and the B field according to the right-hand rule in detail, if the fingers of the right hand are extended to point in the direction of v and are then curled to point in the direction of Bthen the extended thumb will point in the direction of F.
This article will not follow this nomenclature: In what follows, the term "Lorentz force" will refer to the expression for the total force.
The magnetic force component of the Lorentz force manifests itself as the force that acts on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field. In that context, it is also called the Laplace force. The Lorentz force is a force exerted by the electromagnetic field on the charged particle, that is, it is the rate at which linear momentum is transferred from the electromagnetic field to the particle. Associated with it is the power which is the rate at which energy is transferred from the electromagnetic field to the particle.
That power is. Notice that the magnetic field does not contribute to the power because the magnetic force is always perpendicular to the velocity of the particle. For a continuous charge distribution in motion, the Lorentz force equation becomes:. Next, the current density corresponding to the motion of the charge continuum is. The total force is the volume integral over the charge distribution:. Rather than the amount of charge and its velocity in electric and magnetic fields, this equation relates the energy flux flow of energy per unit time per unit distance in the fields to the force exerted on a charge distribution.
See Covariant formulation of classical electromagnetism for more details. If we separate the total charge and total current into their free and bound parts, we get that the density of the Lorentz force is.
In this way, the Lorentz force can explain the torque applied to a permanent magnet by the magnetic field. The density of the associated power is. The above-mentioned formulae use SI units which are the most common among experimentalists, technicians, and engineers.
In cgs-Gaussian unitswhich are somewhat more common among theoretical physicists as well as condensed matter experimentalists, one has instead. Although this equation looks slightly different, it is completely equivalent, since one has the following relations: .
In practice, the subscripts "cgs" and "SI" are always omitted, and the unit system has to be assessed from context. Early attempts to quantitatively describe the electromagnetic force were made in the midth century.
It was proposed that the force on magnetic poles, by Johann Tobias Mayer and others in and electrically charged objects, by Henry Cavendish in obeyed an inverse-square law. However, in both cases the experimental proof was neither complete nor conclusive. It was not until when Charles-Augustin de Coulombusing a torsion balancewas able to definitively show through experiment that this was true.